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dc.contributor.authorSchmale, Julia
dc.contributor.authorHenning, Silvia
dc.contributor.authorDecesari, Stefano
dc.contributor.authorHenzing, Bas
dc.contributor.authorKeskinen, Helmi
dc.contributor.authorSellegri, Karine
dc.contributor.authorOvadnevaite, Jurgita
dc.contributor.authorPöhlker, Mira L.
dc.contributor.authorBrito, Joel
dc.contributor.authorBougiatioti, Aikaterini
dc.contributor.authorKristensson, Adam
dc.contributor.authorKalivitis, Nikos
dc.contributor.authorStavroulas, Iasonas
dc.contributor.authorCarbone, Samara
dc.contributor.authorJefferson, Anne
dc.contributor.authorPark, Minsu
dc.contributor.authorSchlag, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorIwamoto, Yoko
dc.contributor.authorAalto, Pasi
dc.contributor.authorÄijälä, Mikko
dc.contributor.authorBukowiecki, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorEhn, Mikael
dc.contributor.authorFrank, Göran
dc.contributor.authorFröhlich, Roman
dc.contributor.authorFrumau, Arnoud
dc.contributor.authorHerrmann, Erik
dc.contributor.authorHerrmann, Hartmut
dc.contributor.authorHolzinger, Rupert
dc.contributor.authorKos, Gerard
dc.contributor.authorKulmala, Markku
dc.contributor.authorMihalopoulos, Nikolaos
dc.contributor.authorNenes, Athanasios
dc.contributor.authorO'Dowd, Colin
dc.contributor.authorPetäjä, Tuukka
dc.contributor.authorPicard, David
dc.contributor.authorPöhlker, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorPöschl, Ulrich
dc.contributor.authorPoulain, Laurent
dc.contributor.authorPrévôt, André Stephan Henry
dc.contributor.authorSwietlicki, Erik
dc.contributor.authorAndreae, Meinrat O.
dc.contributor.authorArtaxo, Paulo
dc.contributor.authorWiedensohler, Alfred
dc.contributor.authorOgren, John
dc.contributor.authorMatsuki, Atsushi
dc.contributor.authorYum, Seong Soo
dc.contributor.authorStratmann, Frank
dc.contributor.authorBaltensperger, Urs
dc.contributor.authorGysel, Martin
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-20T16:24:06Z
dc.date.available2018-09-20T16:24:06Z
dc.date.issued2018-02-28
dc.identifier.citationSchmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L. Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin (2018). Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18 (4), 2853-2881
dc.identifier.issn1680-7324
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10379/13826
dc.description.abstractAerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0% supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e. g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, kappa, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on kappa-Kohler theory to predict CCN number concentrations. The ratio of predicted to measured CCN concentrations is between 0.87 and 1.4 for five different types of kappa. The temporal variability is also well captured, with Pearson correlation coefficients exceeding 0.87. Information on CCN number concentrations at many locations is important to better characterise ACI and their radiative forcing. But long-term comprehensive aerosol particle characterisations are labour intensive and costly. Hence, we recommend operating "migrating-CCNCs" to conduct collocated CCN number concentration and particle number size distribution measurements at individual locations throughout one year at least to derive a seasonally resolved hygroscopicity parameter. This way, CCN number concentrations can only be calculated based on continued particle number size distribution information and greater spatial coverage of longterm measurements can be achieved.
dc.publisherCopernicus GmbH
dc.relation.ispartofAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
dc.subjectaerosol mass-spectrometer
dc.subjectsingle-parameter representation
dc.subjectbiomass burning smoke
dc.subjectmega-city guangzhou
dc.subject3580 m a.s.l.
dc.subjectorganic aerosol
dc.subjectccn activity
dc.subjectmixing state
dc.subjectatmospheric aerosol
dc.subjecthygroscopic growth
dc.titleLong-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.doi10.5194/acp-18-2853-2018
dc.local.publishedsourcehttps://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/18/2853/2018/acp-18-2853-2018.pdf
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