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Retaliation and Reprisal, forthcoming in Marc Weller (ed.), Oxford Handbook on the Use of Force, Oxford University Press (2013)
This book chapter explores the evolution of the law on the use of force as it relates to armed reprisals and retaliation, particularly since the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations in 1945. While the preponderance ...
Defences to international crimes
The label 'defences' can be used to describe a range of excusing or justificatory answers to a criminal charge, or as 'grounds for excluding criminal responsibility', according to Article 31 of the Rome Statute of the ...