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The effect of pain on cognitive function: a review of clinical and preclinical research.
Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with the pain experience. This impairment represents a major obstacle to daily activities and rehabilitation, especially in the chronic pain population. Here we review clinical ...
Supraspinal modulation of pain by cannabinoids: the role of GABA and glutamate
Recent physiological, pharmacological and anatomical studies provide evidence that one of the main roles of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is the regulation of ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release. ...
The importance of the modulation of pain by emotion is now widely recognised. In particular, stress and anxiety, depending on their nature, duration and intensity, can exert potent, but complex, modulatory influences ...