Crystal structure of δ-chymotrypsin bound to a peptidyl chloromethyl ketone inhibitor
Mac Sweeney, Aengus
Walsh, Martin A.
Malthouse, J. Paul G.
Higgins, Timothy M.
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Mac Sweeney, Aengus; Birrane, Gabriel; Walsh, Martin A. O'Connell, Timothy; Malthouse, J. Paul G.; Higgins, Timothy M. (2000). Crystal structure of δ-chymotrypsin bound to a peptidyl chloromethyl ketone inhibitor. Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 56 , 280-286
Chymotrypsin is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases and is one of the first proteins successfully studied by X-ray crystallography. It is secreted into the intestine as the inactive precursor chymotrypsinogen; four sequential cleavages of the peptide bonds following residues 13, 15, 146 and 148 occur to generate the active pi, delta, kappa and alpha forms of chymotrypsin. C-13 NMR has shown [O'Connell & Malthouse (1995). Biochem. J, 307, 353-359] that when the delta form of chymotrypsin is inhibited by 2-C-13-enriched benzyloxycarbonylglycylglycylphenylalanyl chloromethane, a tetrahedral adduct is formed which is thought to be analogous to the tetrahedral intermediate formed during catalysis, This inhibitor complex has bean crystallized as a dimer in space group P4(1)2(1)2. The structure has been refined at 2.14 Angstrom resolution to an R value of 21.2% (free R = 25.2%), Conformational differences between delta-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen in the region of the flexible autolysis loop (residues 145-150) were observed. This is the first crystal structure of S-chymotrypsin and includes two residues which are disordered in previous crystal structures of active chymotrypsin. A difference of 11.3 Angstrom(2) between the average Zz values of the monomers within the asymmetric unit is caused by lattice-disordering effects approximating to rotation of the molecules about a crystallographic screw axis, The substrate-binding mode of the inhibitor was similar to other chymotrypsin peptidyl inhibitor complexes, but this is the first published chymotrypsin structure in which the tetrahedral chloromethyl ketone transition-state analogue is observed, This structure is compared with that of a similar tetrahedral transition-state analogue which does not alkylate the active-site histidine residue.